I think a symptoms and solutions approach for each of the orming stages works as a good model for ongoing team development.
Forming – this is typically a structuring and validating stage that, if missing, creates a lack of focus, agreement, understanding of purpose for the team, etc.
So, Team Descriptions, Charters, role definition, Goals and Expectations are the most likely solutions if floundering takes place as the team is Forming.
Storming – this is the relationship building stage and can destroy the team or cause it to fracture and split. Indicative of this is when some members begin doing all the work alone or in sub teams and the remainder of the team does little to nothing. Role accountability and responsibility must be clarified at this stage of team building.
Getting through this stage requires facilitated discussions, exercises that reveal issues, constructive conversations, team RACI charting, etc.
Norming – this stage reflects the leveling of trust, confidence, role clarity, respect, and understanding. It is the baseline for moving to team performance versus individual member performance through sharing work, shared decision making, problem solving, and using team models for getting work accomplished that all members understand and agree with.
The solution for issues arising at this stage is typically training about team tools, processes, behaviors, and exercises that strengthen relationships between team members.
Performing is when full trust, openness, and candor are in place along with team competencies and tools that allow members to work together well. Issues continue to arise as new members are assimilated, changes are made in the teams’ purpose, goals, and structure.
Specific tools for on boarding, selection, peer coaching, sponsor support, training, communication, measuring progress, performance review; all help with the sustaining of the performing stage.
High Performance is when a continuous improvement challenge is embraced by the team to go beyond “good enough” to excellence. This alignment of vision, goals, tasks, roles, with open to learning behaviors, allows for interchangeability between members, high levels of trust, continuous team and member development, that maintains and sustains extraordinary performance.
Adjourning is a formal dissolution and celebration of closure for the team. When not done it sometimes creates dis-satisfaction and leaves a bad taste in team members mouths.
Assure there is a process of celebrating the completion of the reason for existence of the team. A sharing of learnings (Retained Learnings) that can be carried forward is appropriate.